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and then reversed the decision because it wasn't popular with the paying spectators. Rather surprisingly, it was reintroduced and ran for five years before changing once again in 2001 to allow 12 interchanges, using four substitutes.
Thirdly, the fans. I don't know about you but I like to try to keep track of which players are on the field. This was impossible with unlimited interchange, you simply couldn't keep up. Even now I struggle with the speed of the game and I believe that most fans will only tolerate a certain number of changes.
Again, I find it interesting how similar things are 100 years later. In Australia they now use the All Stars game at the start of the season as a trial for potential new rules to the game. We've tried it all before in one way or another, but don't always learn from the lessons that history can provide.
In the 1990's we moved to allow six replacements using four substitutes. This brought us into line with Australian club rugby. They'd even had a brief period prior to that in which they'd allowed unlimited interchanges Skechers Shape Ups For Men On Sale
Speed. Strength. Skill. Strategy. Stamina
1 Player welfare/safety
My second point is about the integrity of the game. It's only my opinion but I think that rugby league is composed of five 'S's':
In the UK we have tended to lag behind some of the rules that they adopt in Australia and the number of changes that a coach can make is one of them.
The three important issues for me are:
By the end of the 60's the game's administrators had decided that the two substitutes could be used at any time of the match. This remained the same for over 30 years until four substitutes were allowed in Internationals in the early 90's.
Maintaining a safe environment is of paramount importance. We don't want to force coaches or encourage players to stay on the field if they have a serious injury. Sadly, there isn't a great deal of research published in this area, but I have read a paper published by Dr John Orchard of the Sydney Roosters. He looked at the number of injuries when the game moved from unlimited interchanges to just 12. when players couldn't return to the field of play) when they reduced the interchanges.
Prop plan: Graham was part of a replacement schedule used by England
St Helens Rugby News
The issue had been debated for decades, with Mbt Women's Nafasi the general feeling being that an injury was part and parcel of the game and that to accept substitutes would open the door to fake injuries and manipulation of the system. (I can see the Harlequins 'Bloodgate' scandal spring to mind).
I believe that a reduction to six or eight interchanges may be the right way to go. I don't believe that it would compromise player safety, feel assured that it would be appreciated by the fans and am certain that it would ensure the importance of endurance during the game.
I felt that it was important to know some of the history of this subject before I go on to make my comments. The rumours around the game at the moment suggest that we'll be making more changes at the end of this season.
a very difficult job on game day. Organising, communicating and making the 12 changes over an 80 minute period is a job in itself. Do you watch the game or do you look to see which of your players are tiring?
Just to prove how long the issue of substitutions has been discussed in rugby league, Professor Collins reminded me that an experiment with one substitution had actually been used during the trial matches for the Yorkshire county team in 1905.
I haven't seen any reports or papers since they dropped from 12 interchanges to 10 in the NRL and sadly we don't seem to have any available material to do any injury audit in Super League, so we'd all just be guessing. My assumption is that they've played using just 10 replacements for the last four years Down Under and we haven't heard many medical complaints. World respected Doctors like John Orchard would have voiced their complaints if they felt that it was making the game unsafe.
Some coaches have a pre determined plan of when they'll make their changes. The Bradford Bulls used to do this 10 years ago, rotating their four props after 20 minutes and then again midway through the second half. As a result of their success, most other teams copied this practice whether it suited their squad or not.
Some teams now use the GPS tracking devices to monitor the workload of their players and use the data to suggest when their players need a rest. It's an inaccurate science in so far as a coach will never change a player after 8 minutes even if the physical indicators suggest so. A player may be tired after 12 minutes but have recovered two minutes later if his team win back to back penalties and a goal line drop out.
than four serious injuries in a match. (He looked at 94 games as his sample size).
Again we lagged behind and copied their system, which we currently play under. However, they've moved again and have for the last four seasons only allowed a team to make a maximum of 10 interchanges throughout the course of 80 minutes play.
Quotes of the week
It even stifles the individual brilliance of the star player who plays the full 80 minutes. He has unfairly been asked to run at lesser, fresher players who get rested and rotated from the subs bench. We've not rewarded the player who can run when his lungs are bursting and his opponent wants to rest. The honesty of a player whilst fatigued is one of the qualities that I like to watch.
ComplaintsIn the games that were covered, never did a team have to leave an injured player on the field or play with just 12 men. They never had more Vans Chukka Low Maroon
ScienceThe coaches in the stands have Mbt Kisumu Sandals On Sale
The last one on this list has been undervalued, particularly in an age of unlimited interchanges and to a certain extent with 12. Our obsession with power has tipped the scales unfairly in favour of certain body types.
The modern day clich is that it's a 17 man (or woman) game. Some teams have even been known to select some of their best and most dynamic players as substitutes, introducing them later in the game with devastating effect. But it never used to be like this.
3 Spectacle for the fans
2 Integrity of the game
Professor Tony Collins has provided me with a brief history of this subject and it's interesting that prior to 1964 a team weren't allowed to have a man on the bench. When they were first introduced in the 1964 65 season, a team was allowed two substitutes (usually one forward and one back) who could only come on if a teammate was injured and only if this happened in the first half.
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